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I salute the Arms Control Association … for its keen vision of the goals ahead and for its many efforts to identify and to promote practical measures that are so vitally needed to achieve them. -

– Amb. Nobuyasu Abe,
Former UN Undersecretary General for Disarmament Affairs
January 28, 2004
Russia

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Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (START II)

Description: 

This treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation implemented reductions in two phases in order to meet the established limit on strategic weapons for both states.

Body: 
 

The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (START II) complemented START I. START I’s provisions were unchanged; START II established a limit on strategic weapons and required that reductions be implemented in two phases. Phase I obligated the United States and Russia to reduce their arms to a certain quantitative limit by the end of the phase. Phase II obligated the states to eliminate all heavy intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) by the end of the phase. States were verified by on-site inspections, like in START I, but START II also included inspections to confirm the elimination of ICBMs and their silo launchers. START II created the Bilateral Implementation Commission (BIC) as a forum where the United States and the Russian Federation could work towards compliance.

Opened for Signature: 3 January 1993

Entry into force: never

Official Text: http://www.state.gov/t/avc/trty/104150.htm#text

Status and Signatories: http://www.nti.org/learn/treaties-and-regimes/treaty-between-united-states-america-and-union-soviet-socialist-republics-strategic-offensive-reductions-start-ii/

ACA Backgrounder: https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/start2

Country Resources:

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I (START I)

Description: 

This treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russian Federation was the first to call for reductions of U.S. and Soviet/Russian strategic nuclear weapons and served as a framework for future, more severe reductions.

Body: 
 

The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I (START I) was the first treaty that required U.S. and Soviet/Russian reductions of strategic nuclear weapons. It was indispensable in creating a framework that ensured predictability and stability for deep reductions. The dissolution of the Soviet Union caused a delay in the entry into force of the treaty, as the classification of states as nuclear or non-nuclear had to be determined, among other things. Reductions of nuclear weapons had to be completed within seven years after entry into force and maintained for another eight years. States were verified by on-site inspections. Both the United States and The Russian Federation continued reduction efforts. A new treaty, START II, soon came into effect, which allowed START I to expire.

Opened for Signature: 31 July 1991

Entry into force: 5 December 1994

Official Text: http://fas.org/nuke/control/start1/text/

Status and Signatories: http://fas.org/nuke/control/start1/

ACA Backgrounder: https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/start1

Country Resources:

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

Description: 

This treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union requires destruction of ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with certain ranges, and associated equipment within three years of the Treaty entering into force.

Body: 
 

The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty required that both the United States and the Soviet Union destroy their ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with the range of 500 to 5000 kilometers, as well as the missiles’ launchers and support structures. This was to be met three years after the Treaty gets entered into force. As the Soviet Union reached nuclear parity with the United States and started vamping up the qualitative element of their missiles, this Treaty helped pacify the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Several proposals were made between President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev. When the Soviet Union dissolved, the United States sought full implementation of the INF Treaty with twelve former Soviet republics.

Opened for Signature: 8 December 1987

Entry into force: 1 June 1988

Official Text: http://www.state.gov/t/avc/trty/102360.htm#text

Status and Signatories: http://www.state.gov/t/avc/trty/102360.htm#narrative

ACA Backgrounder: https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/INFtreaty

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