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Right after I graduated, I interned with the Arms Control Association. It was terrific.

– George Stephanopolous
Host of ABC's This Week
January 1, 2005
Treaty Membership and Signatory Status

The Status of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Signatories and Ratifiers

February 2019

Contact: Daryl Kimball, Executive Director, (202) 463-8270 x107

Despite nearly 20 years of global efforts to promote the entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the treaty’s enactment appears a long way off.

President George H. W. Bush signed into law the unilateral declaration to forego full-scale nuclear weapons testing October 2, 1992. The United States signed the CTBT on September 24, 1996, the day it opened for signature, but the Senate dealt a severe blow to the near-term prospects for U.S. participation when it refused to provide its advice and consent October 13, 1999. President Obama, however, stated in February 2009 that he intended to pursue Senate advice and consent to ratification of the treaty "immediately and aggressively."

The CTBT will formally enter into force after 44 designated “nuclear-capable states” (as listed in Annex 2 of the treaty) have deposited their instruments of ratification with the UN secretary-general. To date, 184 states have signed and 168 have ratified the treaty. Yet of the 44 specified countries, India, Pakistan, and North Korea still have not signed, and only 36 have ratified the treaty.

For more information on the CTBT, see Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty at a Glance.

The following chart identifies the treaty’s signatories and ratifiers. States whose ratification is required for the treaty to take effect are shaded and marked with an asterisk (*).


Total Signatories: 184
Total Ratifiers: 168

Annex 2 Ratifications (out of 44): 36

Country
Signature
Ratification
Afghanistan 9/24/03 9/24/03
Albania 9/27/96 4/23/03
Algeria* 10/15/96 7/11/03
Andorra 9/24/96 7/12/06
Angola 9/27/96 3/20/15
Antigua and Barbuda 4/16/97 1/11/06
Argentina* 9/24/96 12/4/98
Armenia 10/1/96 7/12/06
Australia* 9/24/96 7/9/98
Austria* 9/24/96 3/13/98
Azerbaijan 7/28/97 2/2/99
Bahamas 2/4/05 11/30/07
Bahrain 9/24/96 4/12/04
Bangladesh* 10/24/96 3/8/00
Barbados 1/14/08 1/14/08
Belarus 9/24/96 9/13/00
Belgium* 9/24/96 6/29/99
Belize 11/14/01 3/26/04
Benin 9/27/96 3/6/01
Buhtan    
Bolivia 9/24/96 10/4/99
Bosnia and Herzegovina 9/24/96 10/26/06
Botswana 9/16/02 10/28/02
Brazil* 9/24/96 7/24/98
Brunei Darussalam 1/22/97 1/10/13
Bulgaria* 9/24/96 9/29/99
Burkina Faso 9/27/96 4/17/02
Burundi 9/24/96 9/24/08
Cambodia 9/26/96 11/10/00
Cameroon 11/16/01 2/6/06
Canada* 9/24/96 12/18/98
Cape Verde 10/1/96 3/1/06
Central African Republic 12/19/01 5/26/10
Chad 10/8/96 2/8/13
Chile* 9/24/96 7/12/00
China* 9/24/96  
Colombia* 9/24/96 1/29/08
Comoros 12/12/96  
Congo 2/11/97 9/2/14
Cook Islands 12/5/97 9/6/05
Costa Rica 9/24/96 9/25/01
Côte d'Ivoire 9/25/96 3/11/03
Croatia 9/24/96 3/2/01
Cuba    
Cyprus 9/24/96 7/18/03
Czech Republic 11/12/96 9/11/97
Dem. Republic of Congo* 10/4/96 9/28/04
Denmark 9/24/96 12/21/98
Djibouti 10/21/96 7/15/05
Dominica    
Dominican Republic 10/3/96 9/4/07
Ecuador 9/24/96 11/12/01
Egypt* 10/14/96  
El Salvador 9/24/96 9/11/98
Equatorial Guinea 10/9/96  
Eritrea 11/11/03 11/11/03
Estonia 11/20/96 8/13/99
Ethiopia 9/25/96 8/8/06
Fiji 9/24/96 10/10/96
Finland* 9/24/96 1/15/99
France* 9/24/96 4/6/98
Gabon 10/7/96 9/20/00
Gambia 4/9/03  
Georgia 9/24/96 9/27/02
Germany* 9/24/96 8/20/98
Ghana 10/3/96 06/14/11
Greece 9/24/96 4/21/99
Grenada 10/10/96 8/19/98
Guatemala 9/20/99 1/12/12
Guinea 10/3/96 09/20/11
Guinea-Bissau 4/11/97 09/30/13
Guyana 9/7/00 3/7/01
Haiti 9/24/96 12/1/05
Holy See 9/24/96 7/18/01
Honduras 9/25/96 10/30/03
Hungary* 9/25/96 7/13/99
Iceland 9/24/96

6/26/00

India*    
Indonesia* 9/24/96 2/6/12
Iran* 9/24/96  
Iraq 8/19/08 09/26/13
Ireland 9/24/96 7/15/99
Israel* 9/25/96  
Italy* 9/24/96 2/1/99
Jamaica 11/11/96 11/13/01
Japan* 9/24/96 7/8/97
Jordan 9/26/96 8/25/98
Kazakhstan 9/30/96 5/14/02
Kenya 11/14/96 11/30/00
Kiribati 9/7/00 9/7/00
Kuwait 9/24/96 5/6/03
Kyrgyzstan 10/8/96 10/02/03
Laos 7/30/97 10/5/00
Latvia 9/24/96 11/20/01
Lebanon 9/16/05 11/21/08
Lesotho 9/30/96 9/14/99
Liberia 10/1/96 8/17/09
Libya 11/13/01 1/6/04
Liechtenstein 9/27/96 9/21/04
Lithuania 10/7/96 2/7/00
Luxembourg 9/24/96 5/26/99
Macedonia 10/29/98 3/14/00
Madagascar 10/9/96 9/15/05
Malawi 10/9/96 11/21/08
Malaysia 7/23/98 1/17/08
Maldives 10/1/97 9/7/00
Mali 2/18/97 8/4/99
Malta 9/24/96 7/23/01
Marshall Islands 9/24/96 10/28/09
Mauritania 9/24/96 4/30/03
Maritius    
Mexico* 9/24/96 10/5/99
Micronesia 9/24/96 7/25/97
Moldova 9/24/97 1/16/07
Monaco 10/1/96 12/18/98
Mongolia 10/1/96 8/8/97
Montenegro 10/23/06 10/23/06
Morocco 9/24/96 4/17/00
Mozambique 9/26/96 11/4/08
Myanmar 11/25/96 9/21/16
Namibia 9/24/96 6/29/01
Nauru 9/8/00 11/12/01
Nepal 10/8/96  
Netherlands* 9/24/96 3/23/99
New Zealand 9/27/96 3/19/99
Nicaragua 9/24/96 12/5/00
Niger 10/3/96 9/9/02
Nigeria 9/8/00

9/27/01

Niue 4/9/12 3/5/14
North Korea*    
Norway* 9/24/96 7/15/99
Oman 9/23/99 6/13/03
Pakistan*    
Palau 8/12/03 8/1/07
Panama 9/24/96 3/23/99
Papua New Guinea 9/25/96  
Paraguay 9/25/96 10/4/01
Peru* 9/25/96 11/12/97
Philippines 9/24/96 2/23/01
Poland* 9/24/96 5/25/99
Portugal 9/24/96 6/26/00
Qatar 9/24/96 3/3/97
Romania* 9/24/96 10/5/99
Russia* 9/24/96 6/30/00
Rwanda 11/30/'2004 11/30/04
St. Kitts and Nevis 3/33/04 4/27/05
St. Lucia 10/4/96 4/5/01
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 7/2/09 9/23/09
Samoa 10/9/96 9/27/02
San Marino 10/7/96 3/12/02
Sao Tome and Principe 9/26/96  
Saudi Arabia    
Senegal 9/26/96 6/9/99
Serbia and Montenegro 6/8/01 5/19/04
Seychelles 9/24/96 4/13/04
Sierra Leone 9/8/00 9/17/01
Singapore 1/14/99 11/10/01
Slovakia* 9/30/96 3/3/98
Slovenia 9/24/96 8/31/99
Solomon Islands 10/3/96  
Somalia    
South Africa* 9/24/96 3/30/99
South Korea* 9/24/96 9/24/99
South Sudan    
Spain* 9/24/96 7/31/98
Sri Lanka 10/24/96  
Sudan 6/10/04 6/10/04
Suriname 1/14/97 2/7/06
Swaziland 9/24/96 9/21/16
Sweden* 9/24/96 12/2/98
Switzerland* 9/24/96 10/1/99
Syria    
Tajikistan 10/7/96 6/10/98
Tarzania 9/30/04 9/30/04
Thailand 11/12/96 9/25/18
Timor-Leste 9/26/08  
Togo 10/2/96 7/2/04
Tonga    
Trinidad and Tobago 10/8/09 5/26/10
Tunisia 10/16/96 9/23/04
Turkey* 9/24/96 2/16/00
Turkmenistan 9/24/96 2/20/98
Tuvalu 9/25/18  
Uganda 11/7/96 3/14/01
Ukraine* 9/27/96 2/23/01
United Arab Emirates 9/25/96 9/18/00
United Kingdom* 9/24/96 4/6/98
United States* 9/24/96  
Uruguay 9/24/96 9/21/01
Uzbekistan 10/3/96 5/29/97
Vanuatu 9/24/96 9/16/05
Venezuela 10/3/96 5/13/02
Viet Nam* 9/24/96 3/10/06
Yemen 9/30/96  
Zambia 12/3/96 2/23/06
Zimbabwe 10/13/99 2/13/19

Nuclear Testing

Country Resources:

Biological Weapons Convention Signatories and States-Parties

September 2018

Contact: Kelsey Davenport, Director for Nonproliferation Policy, (202) 463-8270 x102

 

The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) currently has 182 states-parties, including Palestine, and five signatories (Egypt, Haiti, Somalia, Syria, and Tanzania). Ten states have neither signed nor ratified the BWC (Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Israel, Kiribati, Micronesia, Namibia, South Sudan and Tuvalu). The BWC opened for signature on April 10, 1972 and entered into force on March 26, 1975. A country that did not ratify the BWC before it entered into force may accede to it at any time.

For a guide to the terms of the convention, see The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) at a Glance.

 

Country

Signature

Ratification/Accession

Afghanistan 4/10/72
3/26/75
Albania -
6/3/92
Algeria -
7/22/01
Andorra -
02/27/15
Angola -
07/26/16
Antigua & Barbuda - 1/29/03
Argentina 8/1/72 11/27/79
Armenia -
6/7/94
Australia 4/10/72
10/5/77
Austria 4/10/72
8/10/73
Azerbaijan -
2/26/04
Bahamas - 11/26/86
Bahrain -
10/28/88
Bangladesh -
3/11/85
Barbados 2/16/73 2/16/73
Belarus 4/10/72
3/26/75
Belgium 4/10/72
3/15/79
Belize [1] - 10/20/86
Benin 4/10/72
4/25/75
Bhutan -
6/8/78
Bolivia 4/10/72
4/25/75
Bosnia and Herzegovina [2] -
8/15/94
Botswana 4/10/72
2/5/92
Brazil 4/10/72
2/27/73
Brunei Darussalem -
1/31/91
Bulgaria 4/10/72
8/2/72
Burkina Faso -
4/17/91
Burundi 4/10/72
10/18/11
Cambodia 4/10/72
3/9/83
Cameroon - 1/18/13
Canada 4/10/72
9/18/72
Cape Verde -
10/20/77
Central African Republic 4/10/72 9/25/18
Chile 4/10/72
4/22/80
China -
11/15/84
Colombia 4/10/72
12/19/83
Congo -
10/23/78
Cook Islands - 12/4/08
Costa Rica 4/10/72
12/17/73
Côte d'Ivoire 5/23/72
3/23/16
Croatia [2] -
4/28/93
Cuba 4/10/72
4/21/76
Cyprus 4/10/72
11/6/73
Czech Republic [3] -
4/5/93
Democratic Republic of Congo [4] 4/10/72
9/16/75
Denmark 4/10/72
3/1/73
Dominica -
11/8/78
Dominican Republic 4/10/72
2/23/73
Ecuador 6/14/72
3/21/73
Egypt 4/10/72 -
El Salvador 4/10/72
12/31/91
Equatorial Guinea -
1/16/89
Estonia -
6/21/93
Ethiopia 4/10/72
5/26/75
Fiji 2/22/73
9/4/73
Finland 4/10/72
2/4/74
France -
9/27/84
Gabon 4/10/72
8/16/07
Gambia 6/2/72
11/21/91
Georgia -
5/23/96
Germany [5] 4/10/72
11/28/72
Ghana 4/10/72
6/6/75
Greece 4/10/72
12/10/75
Grenada -
10/22/86
Guatemala 5/9/72
9/19/73
Guinea   11/9/16
Guinea-Bissau -
8/20/76
Guyana 1/3/73
3/26/13
Haiti 4/10/72
-
Holy See 1/4/02
1/4/02
Honduras 4/10/72
3/14/79
Hungary 4/10/72 12/27/72
Iceland 4/10/72
2/15/73
India 1/15/73
7/15/74
Indonesia 6/20/72
2/19/92
Iran 4/10/72
8/22/73
Iraq 5/11/72 6/19/91
Ireland 4/10/72 10/27/72
Italy 4/10/72
5/30/75
Jamaica -
8/13/75
Japan 4/10/72
6/8/82
Jordan 4/10/72
5/30/75
Kazakhstan -
6/15/07
Kenya -
11/7/76
Kuwait 4/14/72
7/18/72
Kyrgyzstan - 10/15/04
Laos 4/10/72
3/20/73
Latvia -
2/6/97
Lebanon 4/10/72 3/26/75
Lesotho 4/10/72
9/6/77
Liberia 4/10/72
11/4/16
Libya - 1/19/82
Liechtenstein -
5/30/91
Lithuania -
2/10/98
Luxembourg 4/10/72
3/23/76
Macedonia [2] -
12/24/96
Madagascar 10/13/72
3/7/08
Malawi 4/10/72
4/2/13
Malaysia 4/10/72
9/6/91
Maldives -
8/2/93
Mali 4/10/72
11/25/02
Malta 9/11/72
4/7/75
Marshall Islands   11/15/12
Mauritania   1/28/15
Mauritius 4/10/72
8/7/72
Mexico 4/10/72
4/8/74
Moldova - 1/25/05
Monaco -
4/30/99
Mongolia 4/10/72
9/5/72
Montenegro [6] 4/10/72
6/3/06
Morocco 5/2/72
3/21/02
Mozambique - 3/29/11
Myanmar 4/10/72  12/1/14
Nauru - 3/5/13
Nepal 4/10/72
11/4/16
Netherlands 4/10/72
6/22/81
New Zealand 4/10/72
12/13/72
Nicaragua 4/10/72
7/8/75
Niger 4/21/72
6/23/72
Nigeria 7/3/72
7/3/73
Niue   6/14/18
North Korea - 3/13/87
Norway 4/10/72
8/1/73
Oman -
3/31/92
Pakistan 4/10/72
9/25/74
Palau - 2/20/03
Palestine - 1/9/18
Panama 5/2/72 3/20/74
Papua New Guinea -
10/27/80
Paraguay -
6/9/76
Peru 4/10/72
6/5/85
Philippines 4/10/72
5/21/73
Poland 4/10/72
1/25/73
Portugal 6/29/72
5/15/75
Qatar 11/14/72
4/17/75
Romania 4/10/72
7/25/79
Russia [7] 4/10/72
3/26/75
Rwanda 4/10/72
5/20/75
St. Kitts & Nevis -
4/2/91
St. Lucia [8] -
11/26/86
St. Vincent & the Grenadines [8] -
4/2/91
Samoa   9/21/17
San Marino 9/12/72
3/11/75
Sao Tome and Principe - 8/24/79
Saudi Arabia 4/10/72
5/24/72
Senegal 4/10/72
3/26/75
Serbia [2] [6] 4/10/72 10/25/73
Seychelles -
10/11/79
Sierra Leone 11/7/72
6/29/76
Singapore 6/19/72
12/2/75
Slovakia [3] -
5/17/93
Slovenia [2] -
4/7/92
Solomon Islands [8] -
6/17/81
Somalia 7/3/72 -
South Africa 4/10/72
11/3/75
South Korea 4/10/72
6/25/87
Spain 4/10/72
6/20/79
Sri Lanka 4/10/72
11/18/86
Sudan -
10/17/03
Suriname -
1/6/93
Swaziland -
6/18/91
Sweden 2/27/75
2/5/76
Switzerland 4/10/72
5/4/76
Syria 4/14/72 -
Tajikistan - 6/27/05
Tanzania 8/16/72
-
Thailand 1/17/73
5/28/75
Timor Leste - 5/5/03
Togo 4/10/72
11/10/76
Tonga - 9/28/76
Trinidad & Tobago - 7/19/07
Tunisia 4/10/72
5/18/73
Turkey 4/10/72
10/25/74
Turkmenistan - 1/11/96
Uganda -
5/12/92
Ukraine 4/10/72
3/26/75
United Arab Emirates 9/28/72
6/19/08
United Kingdom 4/10/72
3/26/75
United States 4/10/72
3/26/75
Uruguay -
4/6/81
Uzbekistan -
1/11/96
Vanuatu -
10/12/90
Venezuela 4/10/72
10/18/78
Vietnam -
6/20/80
Yemen [9] 4/26/72
6/1/79
Zambia -
1/15/08
Zimbabwe -
11/5/90

Taiwan (the Republic of China) has also stated its intent to abide by the treaty, despite not being a state party. The Republic of China signed the treaty on April 10, 1972 and ratified it on February 9, 1973.

Source: UN Website

Research assistance by Marissa Papatola

Footnotes

1. Succession from the United Kingdom

2. Succession from Yugoslavia

3. Succession from Czechoslovakia

4. Ratification as Zaire

5. Ratification as East Germany and West Germany

6. Ratified as Serbia and Montenegro

7. Ratified as the Soviet Union

8. Succession from the United Kingdom

9. Ratified as South Yemen and North Yemen

Strategic Arms Control and Policy

Country Resources:

Subject Resources:

Chemical Weapons Convention Signatories and States-Parties

June 2018 

Contact: Daryl KimballExecutive Director, (202) 463-8270 x107

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) entered into force on April 29, 1997 and currently has 193 states-parties. One state has signed but not ratified (Israel). Three states have neither signed nor ratified (Egypt, North Korea, and South Sudan).

For a guide to the convention, see The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) at a Glance.

 

Country

Signature

Ratification/Accession

Afghanistan 1/14/93
9/24/03
Albania 1/14/93
5/11/94
Algeria 1/13/93
8/14/95
Andorra 2/27/03
Angola 9/16/15
Antigua & Barbuda 8/29/05
Argentina 1/13/93
10/2/95
Armenia 3/19/93
1/27/95
Australia 1/13/93
5/6/94
Austria 1/13/93
8/17/95
Azerbaijan 1/13/93
2/29/00
Bahamas 3/2/94
4/21/09
Bahrain 2/24/93
4/28/97
Bangladesh 1/14/93
4/25/97
Barbados
3/7/07
Belarus 1/14/93
7/11/96
Belgium 1/13/93
1/27/97
Belize 12/1/03
Benin 1/14/93
5/14/98
Bhutan 4/23/97
8/18/05
Bolivia 1/14/93
8/14/98
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1/16/97
2/25/97
Botswana
8/31/98
Brazil 1/13/93
3/13/96
Brunei Darussalem 1/13/93
7/28/97
Bulgaria 1/13/93
8/10/94
Burkina Faso 1/14/93
7/8/97
Burundi 1/15/93
9/4/98
Cambodia 1/15/93
7/19/05
Cameroon 1/14/93
9/16/96
Canada 1/13/93
9/26/95
Cape Verde 1/15/93
10/10/03
Central African Republic 1/14/93
9/20/06
Chad 10/11/94
2/13/04
Chile 1/14/93
7/12/96
China 1/13/93
4/25/97
Colombia 1/13/93
4/5/00
Comoros 1/13/93
9/17/06
Congo 1/15/93
12/4/07
Cook Islands 1/14/93
7/15/94
Costa Rica 1/14/93
5/31/96
Côte d'Ivoire 1/13/93
12/18/95
Croatia 1/13/93
5/23/95
Cuba 1/13/93
4/29/97
Cyprus 1/13/93
8/28/98
Czech Republic 1/14/93
3/6/96
Democratic Republic of Congo 1/14/93
10/12/05
Denmark 1/14/93
7/13/95
Djibouti 9/28/93
1/25/06
Dominica 8/2/93
2/12/01
Dominican Republic 1/13/93
3/26/09
Ecuador 1/14/93
9/6/95
El Salvador 1/14/93
10/30/95
Egypt    
Equatorial Guinea 1/14/93
4/25/97
Eritrea
2/14/00
Estonia 1/14/93
5/26/99
Ethiopia 1/14/93
5/13/96
Fiji 1/14/93
1/20/93
Finland 1/14/93
2/7/95
France 1/13/93
3/2/95
Gabon 1/13/93
9/8/00
Gambia 1/13/93
5/19/98
Georgia 1/14/93
11/27/95
Germany 1/13/93
8/12/94
Ghana 1/14/93
7/9/97
Greece 1/13/93
12/22/94
Grenada 4/9/97
6/3/05
Guatemala 1/14/93
2/12/03
Guinea 1/14/93
6/9/97
Guinea-Bissau 1/14/93
6/19/08
Guyana 10/6/93
9/12/97
Haiti 1/14/93
2/22/06
Holy See 1/14/93
5/12/99
Honduras 1/13/93
8/29/05
Hungary 1/13/93
10/31/96
Iceland 1/13/93
4/28/97
India 1/14/93
9/3/96
Indonesia 1/13/93
11/12/98
Iran 1/13/93
11/3/97
Iraq 1/13/09
Ireland 1/14/93
6/24/96
Israel 1/13/93
Italy 1/13/93
12/8/95
Jamaica 4/18/97
9/8/00
Japan 1/13/93
9/15/95
Jordan
10/29/97
Kazakhstan 1/14/93
3/23/00
Kenya 1/15/93
4/25/97
Kiribati
9/7/00
Kuwait 1/27/93
5/28/97
Kyrgyzstan 2/22/93
9/29/03
Laos 5/13/93
2/25/97
Latvia 5/6/93
7/23/96
Lebanon 11/20/08
Lesotho 12/7/94
12/7/94
Liberia 1/15/93
3/25/06
Libya 1/6/04
Liechtenstein 7/21/93
11/24/99
Lithuania 1/13/93
4/15/98
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7/8/96
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1/17/95
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12/28/95
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11/27/95
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11/12/01
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11/18/97
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7/15/96
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11/5/99
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4/9/97
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5/20/99
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4/7/94
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2/8/95
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10/28/97
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Panama 6/16/93
10/7/98
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4/17/96
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12/1/94
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7/20/95
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12/11/96
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8/23/95
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9/10/96
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9/3/97
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2/15/95
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11/5/97
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3/31/04
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5/21/04
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4/9/97
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9/18/02
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9/27/02
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12/10/99
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8/9/96
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7/20/98
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4/7/93
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9/30/04
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6/11/97
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5/24/99
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4/28/97
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11/20/96
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6/17/93
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3/10/95
Syria   9/12/13*
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1/11/95
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6/25/98
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12/10/02
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4/23/97
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6/24/97
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4/15/97
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5/12/97
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1/19/04
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11/30/01
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10/16/98
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11/28/00
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5/13/96
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4/25/97
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10/6/94
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9/16/05
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12/3/97
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9/30/98
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10/2/00
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2/9/01
Zimbabwe 1/13/93
4/25/97

*Syria sent a letter to the United Nations Secretary General which said that Assad signed a legislative decree providing the accession of Syria to the Chemical Weapons Convention. In the letter, Assad said Syria would observe its CWC obligations immediately, as opposed to 30 days from the date of accession, as stipulated in the treaty.

    Source: Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    Chemical/Biological Arms Control

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