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"In my home there are few publications that we actually get hard copies of, but [Arms Control Today] is one and it's the only one my husband and I fight over who gets to read it first."

– Suzanne DiMaggio
Senior Fellow, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
April 15, 2019
Conventional Arms Issues

Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements From January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006

August 2007

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: August 2007

During 2006, the Pentagon notified Congress of an estimated nearly $37 billion in proposed, government-to-government, conventional arms transfer agreements with 25 countries and the 26-member NATO alliance.

The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Defense Department’s Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions. Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of proposed sales of “major defense equipment,” as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as “major defense equipment” which total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.[1] However, if the proposed sale involves NATO members, Australia, Japan, or New Zealand, the notification thresholds are $25 million for major defense equipment, $100 million for other defense articles and services, and $300 million for construction or design services.[2] Once notified, Congress has 30 calendar days (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand) to block a sale by passing a joint resolution of disapproval, though it has never stopped a sale once formally notified.

The proposed 2006 arms sales total was more than three times the $12.3 billion sum proposed in 2005.  Whereas only three countries requested more than one billion dollars in U.S. arms sales in 2005, nine countries requested sales exceeding that mark in 2006: Australia, Canada, Iraq, the Netherlands, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates.

Amid continuing turmoil in Iraq and growing concerns about Iran’s nuclear activities, almost 70% of the proposed sales were sought by countries in the Middle East. Iraq itself entered the ranks of top clients with $2.25 billion in possible purchases. The post-Saddam regime’s first proposed FMS purchase (C-130 aircraft engines worth $132 million) occurred in 2005.

A traditional U.S. arms purchaser, Saudi Arabia requested the highest sum ($11.3 billion) in possible buys, including the largest single arms request of $5.8 billion to modernize its national guard. That proposed purchase included mostly logistical equipment, such as long-range radio systems and night vision goggles. Pakistan, the runner-up for the most expensive arms sales request tally, sought $6 billion in arms in 2006, a dramatic rise from its previous year total of $282 million. The significant increase coincides with a budding U.S.-India relationship, which includes New Delhi’s consideration of U.S. combat aircraft for a pending purchase of 126 combat aircraft. The United States hails Pakistan, a neighbor of Afghanistan, as a critical ally in the declared “global war on terror.”

As in past years, a significant portion of the proposed deals were requests for upgrades, modifications, and support for previously purchased aircraft, armed vehicles, and missile systems. In contrast, new missiles were not as popular among purchasers in 2006 as in previous years, but several countries sought to procure aircraft.

 

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
Saudi Arabia
$11.3 billion
  • Modernization of the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG), including 724 new Light Armored Vehicles (LAV) and 6,494 Single Channel Ground and Airborne Systems (SINCGARS)
  • 58 M1A1 Abrams tanks and upgrades for existing M1A2s
  • 175 F-15S aircraft engines
  • 24 UH-60L Utility/Assault Black Hawk helicopters
  • Miscellaneous spare parts
Pakistan
$6 billion
  • 2,776 Radio Frequency (RF) TOW-2A Missiles, 422 RF Bunker Buster missiles, and associated equipment
  • 130 HARPOON Block II Missiles and associated equipment
  • 36 F-16 Block 50/52 aircraft and various engine and aircraft equipment upgrades
  • 3,921 High Frequency Radio Systems
  • 3 E-2C Hawkeye 2000 Airborne Early Warning Suite for P-3 aircraft
Turkey
$3 billion
  • 30 advanced F-16 Block 50 Aircraft, with equipment and services
  • 50 SLAM-ER missiles
Australia
$3 billion
  • 3 MK 41 Vertical Launch Systems
  • Modification of 3 MK 7 AEGIS Weapon Systems
  • 4 C-17 GLOBEMASTER III aircraft and miscellaneous support equipment
  • 18 F117-PW-100 aircraft engines
South Korea
$2.4 billion
  • Contractor, Technical, and Logistics Support for RC-800 Tactical Reconnaissance Aircraft and Reconnaissance Ground Stations
  • 48 SM-2 Block IIIB STANDARD missiles
  • 58 HARPOON Block II missiles
Iraq
$2.25 billion
  • Logistic support for helicopters, vehicles, and weapons
  • 24 King Air 350ER aircraft and associated equipment and services
  • 522 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) or 276 Infantry Light Armored Vehicles
  • Long Range Air Traffic Control Radar

ENDNOTES

1. The Department of State is also required to report to Congress any commercial sales it approves of “major defense equipment” that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million, and any items defined as “significant military equipment.” As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval within 30 calendar days of notification (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand). There are no official compilations of commercial agreement data and it is often incomplete and less precise than data on government-to-government transactions (Grimmett, Richard F., Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1998-2005, Washington, D.C., Congressional Research Service, p. 20). The annual Section 655 report, prepared by the State and Defense Departments for Congress, details commercial licenses approved, but states have four years to act under the licenses. The State Department’s Office of Defense Trade Controls has final responsibility for license applications for commercial defense trade exports and all issues related to defense trade compliance, enforcement, and reporting.

2. Congress approved the higher notification thresholds for NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand in legislation passed in September 2002.

-Researched by Abby Doll

Sources: Congressional Research Service, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, and Department of State.

Conventional Arms Issues

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Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements From January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005

August 2006

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: August 2006

During 2005, the Pentagon notified Congress of an estimated $12.329 billion in proposed, government-to-government, conventional arms transfer agreements with 22 countries and Taiwan.

The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Defense Department’s Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions. Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of proposed sales of “major defense equipment,” as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as “major defense equipment” which total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.[1] However, if the proposed sale involves NATO members, Australia, Japan, or New Zealand, the notification thresholds are $25 million for major defense equipment, $100 million for other defense articles and services, and $300 million for construction or design services.[2] Once notified, Congress has 30 calendar days (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand) to block a sale by passing a joint resolution of disapproval, though it has never stopped a sale once formally notified.

Greece, Saudi Arabia, and Australia were the only three interested buyers in 2005 that asked for more than a billion dollars worth of U.S. arms. Greece topped this trio with a $3.1 billion request for 40 F-16C/D fighter aircraft and associated weapons and equipment. A major procurer of U.S. arms since the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Saudi Arabia tallied nearly $2.9 billion in possible purchases, which were largely focused on modernizing and upgrading existing Saudi forces and weapons. Australia devoted most of its $1.2 billion total to missiles.

Although six more countries requested FMS deals in 2005 than in 2004, the total value of proposed sales dipped about $150 million. This slight reduction reflected the fact that most potential buyers in 2005—except for Greece—concentrated on pursuing missiles and other ancillary weaponry and equipment rather than major combat systems.

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
Greece

$3.1 billion

40 F-16C/D Block 52+ aircraft and associated equipment.

Saudi Arabia

$2.879 billion

Upgrade kits and services for 54 C-130E/H aircraft.

165 Fighter Data Link terminals.

Maintenance, spare and repair parts, and contractor services for a variety of aircraft and missiles.

Modernization of Saudi Arabian National Guard, including 144 armored personnel carrier vehicles and 51,400 F-2000 5.56mm assault rifles.

Australia
$1.258 billion

260 JASSM missiles (air-to-surface).

260 SLAM-ER missiles (air-to-surface).

Three MK 7 Aegis Weapons Systems.

175 SM-2 Block IIIA Standard missiles (ship-based anti-aircraft).

Singapore
$741 million

Weapons, training, and logistic support for F-15 combat aircraft, including 200 AIM-120C Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles
and 200 AIM-9X Sidewinder Missiles.

Israel
$630 million

100 Guided Bomb Units (GBU-28).

U.S. contractor management and logistics support for Israeli F-15 and F-16A/B combat aircraft engines, as well as spare and repair parts.

NOTES

1. The Department of State is also required to report to Congress any commercial sales it approves of “major defense equipment” that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million, and any items defined as “significant military equipment.” As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval within 30 calendar days of notification (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand). There are no official compilations of commercial agreement data and it is often incomplete and less precise than data on government-to-government transactions (Grimmett, Richard F., Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1997-2004, Washington, D.C., Congressional Research Service, p. 15). The annual Section 655 report, prepared by the State and Defense Departments for Congress, details commercial licenses approved, but states have four years to act under the licenses. The State Department’s Office of Defense Trade Controls has final responsibility for license applications for commercial defense trade exports and all issues related to defense trade compliance, enforcement, and reporting.

2. Congress approved the higher notification thresholds for NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand in legislation passed in September 2002.

—Researched by Jeremy Wolland

Sources: Congressional Research Service, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, and Department of State.

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Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements From January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004

January 2005

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: January 2005

During 2004, the Pentagon notified Congress of an estimated $12.477 billion in proposed, government-to-government, conventional arms transfer agreements with 16 countries, including Taiwan.

The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Defense Department's Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions. Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of proposed sales of "major defense equipment," as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as "major defense equipment" which total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.[1] However, if the proposed sales involve NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand, the notification thresholds are $25 million for major defense equipment, $100 million for other defense articles and services, and $300 million for construction or design services.[2] Once notified, Congress has 30 calendar days (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand) to block a sale by passing a joint resolution of disapproval, though it has never stopped a sale once formally notified.

Two traditional purchasers of U.S. arms—Turkey and Taiwan—topped all potential buyers in seeking the largest sums of weapons in 2004. Turkey requested nearly $4 billion in upgrades and armaments for 218 F-16 combat aircraft perviously acquired from the United States, while Taiwan asked to procure two long-range early warning radars worth almost $1.8 billion. Pakistan and Afghanistan, which reemerged as destinations for U.S. arms transfers as part of the U.S.-led war on terror following more than a decade of being denied access to American weapons, were the only other countries in 2004 to seek more than a billion dollars in U.S. military buys. Pakistan sought a range of advanced weaponry, including early warning aircraft and anti-tank missiles, totaling roughly $1.3 billion. Still in the process of forming a professional military, Afghanistan requested $1 billion to recruit, train, and house its budding army.

The Pentagon notified Congress of $5 billion more in possible arms agreements in 2004 than the preceding year even though four fewer countries sought U.S. weapons deals. One factor for the larger 2004 sum was that potential recipients pursued more expensive purchases. Turkey, Taiwan, and Afghanistan each requested separate deals worth more than $1 billion, while in 2003 no proposed individual deal surpassed the $1 billion mark.

The Top Five Recipients of Proposed FMS Deals From January 1 to December 31, 2004

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
Turkey
$3.984
Equipment and weapons upgrades for 218 F-16 combat aircraft. The weapons include 225 AIM-9X SIDEWINDER missiles, 5 AIM-9X Dummy Air Training
missiles, and 20 AIM-9X Captive Air Training missiles.
Taiwan
$1.776 billion
2 Ultra High Frequency long-range early warning radars.
Pakistan
$1.285
8 P-3C aircraft with T-56 engines.

2,000 TOW-2A anti-armor missiles.

6 PHALANX Close-In Weapon Systems (CIWS) and upgrades for 6 PHALANX CIWS.

Harris High Frequency/Very High Frequency radio systems, including 1,635 20-Watt High Frequency (HF) Man Packs, 1,635 20-Watt HF Vehicular Systems, 50 150 Watt HF Vehicular Systems, six 400-Watt HF Base Station Systems, and two Radio Frequency Remote Control Systems.

Afghanistan
$1 billion
Facilities and infrastructure for recruitment, garrison, and training for the Afghan National Army.
Japan
$903 million
20 PATRIOT Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missile interceptors.

40 SM-2 Block IIIB Tactical Standard missiles.

9 SM-3 Block 1A Standard missiles.

NOTES

1. The State Department is also required to report to Congress any commercial sales it approves of "major defense equipment" that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million, and any items defined as "significant military equipment." As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval within 30 calendar days of notification (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand). There are no official compilations of commercial agreement data and it is often incomplete and less precise than the data on government-to-government transactions (Grimmett, Richard F. "Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1996-2003," Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, p. 15). The annual Section 655 report, prepared by the State Department and Defense Department for Congress, details commercial licenses approved, but states have four years to act under the licenses. The State Department's Office of Defense Trade Controls has final responsibility for license applications for commercial defense trade exports and all issues related to defense trade compliance, enforcement, and reporting.

2. Congress approved the higher notification thresholds for NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand in legislation passed in September 2002.

—Researched by Daniel Zeitlin

Sources: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of State, and Arms Control Association

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Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements From January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003

April 2004

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: April 2004

During 2003, the Pentagon notified Congress of an estimated $7.431 billion in proposed, government-to-government, conventional arms transfer agreements with 20 countries, including Taiwan.

The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Defense Department's Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions. Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of proposed sales of "major defense equipment," as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as "major defense equipment" which total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.[1] However, if the proposed sales involve NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand, the notification thresholds are $25 million for major defense equipment, $100 million for other defense articles and services, and $300 million for construction or design services.[2] Once notified, Congress has 30 calendar days (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand) to block a sale by passing a joint resolution of disapproval, though it has never stopped a sale once formally notified.

Middle Eastern countries accounted for nearly half the value of all proposed sales, totaling some $3.36 billion in arms requests. Egypt led all possible buyers with nearly $1.29 billion in potential deals, including 125 M1A1 Abrams tank kits and 414 air-to-air missiles. Saudi Arabia's $1.23 billion in possible agreements-most of which were not actual weapons, but for continued modernization of its national guard-ranked second. Jordan, which sought eight Blackhawk helicopters and upgrades for 17 F-16A fighters, tallied $651 million in arms requests. Taiwan ($775 million) and the Czech Republic ($650 million) were the other two countries showing the most interest in American weapons.

During 2002, the Pentagon notified Congress of $15.534 billion in possible agreements with 29 countries, more than twice the 2003 total. Recently enacted legislation, which increased reporting thresholds on proposed Pentagon sales to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand, is one possible explanation for the much smaller figure.

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
Egypt
$1.29 billion
414 AIM-9M-1/2 Sidewinder Air-to-Air Missiles.

2 C-130H-based Roll-on/Roll-off airborne Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) Systems.

10,040 non-standard rounds of commercial 120mm Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer (APFSDS-T) Kinetic Energy Tungsten Advanced cartridges.

100 M1114 High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV), 400 M1113 HMMWVs, 50 M997A2 HMMWV ambulances, and spare engines.

Co-production of 21 M88A2 Hercules Heavy Recovery Vehicle Kits, and 21 M2 machine guns.

Co-production of 125 M1A1 Abrams tank kits with Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer, Firepower Enhancement Package, and Armor Upgrades. 125 M256 Armament Systems, 125 M2 .50 caliber machine guns, and 250 M204 7.62mm machine guns.

Saudi Arabia
$1.23 billion
4 AN/AAQ-24(V) NEMESIS Directional Infrared Countermeasures Systems.

Continued Modernization of the Saudi Arabian National Guard, by providing minor defense articles and defense support services.

Taiwan
$775 million
102 Multifunctional Information Distribution Systems (MIDS)/Low Volume Terminals, and 20 MIDS On Ships Terminals.
Jordan
$651 million
1 AN/AAQ-24(V) NEMESIS Directional Infrared Countermeasures System.

17 F-16A Mid-Life Upgrade kits, 12 F-100 engine PW-220E modification kits, 17 Falcon UP and Falcon STAR F-16A/B structural upgrade kits.

8 UH-60L Blackhawk helicopters with T-700-GE-701C engines, 4 spare T-700-GE-701C engines, M130 chaff dispenser.

Czech Republic[3]
$650 million
12 F-16A Block 15 Air Defense Fighter aircraft, 2 F-16B Block10 Operational Capabilities Upgrade (OCU) aircraft, 2 F-16A Block 10 OCU aircraft for cannibalization, 16 Pratt and Whitney F-100-PW-220 engines including 2 spare engines, and 35 LAU-129 launchers.

NOTES

1. The State Department is also required to report to Congress any commercial sales it approves of "major defense equipment" that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million, and any items defined as "significant military equipment." As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval within 30 calendar days of notification (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand). There are no official compilations of commercial agreement data and it is often incomplete and less precise than the data on government-to-government transactions (Grimmett, Richard F. "Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1995-2002," Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, p. 15). The annual Section 655 report, prepared by the State Department and Defense Department for Congress, details commercial licenses approved, but states have four years to act under the licenses. The State Department's Office of Defense Trade Controls has final responsibility for license applications for commercial defense trade exports and all issues related to defense trade compliance, enforcement, and reporting.

2. Congress approved the higher notification thresholds for NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand in legislation passed in September 2002.

3. Instead of finalizing the sale of the F-16s with the United States, the Czech Republic decided to lease 14 new Gripen fighters from Gripen International, a British-Swedish company.

—Researched by Gabrielle Kohlmeier

Sources: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of State, and Arms Control Association

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Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002

January 2003

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: January 2003

During 2002, the Pentagon notified Congress of an estimated $15.534 billion in proposed, government-to-government, conventional arms transfer agreements with 29 countries, including Taiwan. The Pentagon also offered NATO up to $1.1 billion in military deals.

The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Defense Department's Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions. Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of proposed sales of "major defense equipment," as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as "major defense equipment" which total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.1 However, if the proposed sales involve NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand, the notification thresholds are $25 million for major defense equipment, $100 million for other defense articles and services, and $300 million for construction or design services.2 Once notified, Congress has 30 calendar days (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand) to block a sale by passing a joint resolution of disapproval, though it has never blocked a sale once formally notified.

Kuwait topped the list of all potential recipients with requests for $2.29 billion in weaponry, including 16 AH-64D Apache Longbow combat helicopters and 80 AIM-120C Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAMs). Kuwait finalized a deal for the helicopters in September 2002.

The United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) and Taiwan ranked second and third respectively in possible arms buys. U.A.E. requests totaled $2.14 billion for the upgrade of 30 Apache helicopters and the purchase of five E-2C Hawkeye early-warning aircraft and 237 Sea Sparrow ship-to-air missiles. Taiwan sought $1.52 billion in potential deals, including four Kidd-class guided-missile destroyers and hundreds of anti-armor and anti-aircraft missiles. The United States publicly authorized selling the destroyers to Taiwan in April 2001.

Other major weapons sales proposed by the Pentagon in 2002 were 18 F/A-18F fighter jets to Malaysia, 30 F-16A/B or 24 F-16C/D combat aircraft to Austria, and 12 F-16C/D aircraft to Brazil. By the end of 2002, Malaysia and Austria still had not decided whether they would purchase the American fighters, while Brazil announced in early January 2003 that it would postpone any fighter buy for at least a year.

During 2001, the Pentagon notified Congress of $18.88 billion in possible agreements.

The Top Five Recipients of Proposed FMS Deals
From January 1 to December 31, 2002:

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
Kuwait
$2.289 billion
Aerostat balloon/radar system and other radars.

80 AIM-120C Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAMs).

16 AH-64D Apache Longbow combat helicopters with spare engines and armaments, including 96 Longbow Hellfire AGM-114L3 and 288 Hellfire AGM-114K3 missiles.

U.A.E.
$2.145 billion
Five refurbished E-2C Hawkeye 2000 early-warning aircraft with radars.

Upgrade of 30 AH-64A Apache attack helicopters to the AH-64D version. 32 AN/APG-78 AH-64D Longbow Fire Control Radars, 32 spare engines, 32 night vision sensors, 240 AGM-114L3 Hellfire missiles, 49 AGM-114M3 Hellfire blast fragmentation anti-armor missiles, and 90 299 Hellfire missile launchers.


237 Sea Sparrow ship-to-air missiles.

Taiwan
$1.521 billion
290 TOW-2B anti-tank missiles with spare and repair parts.

Four Kidd-class guided-missile destroyers, 248 SM-2 Block IIIA Standard ship-to-air missiles, 32 RGM-84L Block II Harpoon anti-ship missiles.

48 rebuilt Standard Assault Amphibious Personnel Vehicles, four Assault Amphibious Command Vehicles, and two Assault Amphibious Recovery Vehicles.

Maintenance and spare parts for military aircraft and missiles.

182 AIM-9M-1/2 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles.

449 AGM-114M3 Hellfire blast fragmentation anti-armor missiles.

Three AN/MPN-14(SS) radar sets with spare and repair parts.

Malaysia
$1.483 billion
18 F/A-18F Super Hornet combat aircraft with 39 engines, radars, and other electronic support packages.
South Korea
$1.266 billion
Nine excess P-3B Orion long-range maritime patrol and anti-submarine aircraft with spare engines and parts.

Three AEGIS shipboard combat systems and associated equipment and services.


NOTES:

1 .The State Department is also required to report to Congress any commercial sales it approves of "major defense equipment" that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million, and any items defined as "significant military equipment." As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval within 30 calendar days of notification (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand). There are no official compilations of commercial agreement data and it is often incomplete and less precise than the data on government-to-government transactions (Grimmett, Richard F. "Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1994-2001," Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, p. 15). The annual Section 655 report, prepared by the State Department and Defense Department for Congress, details commercial licenses approved, but states have four years to act under the licenses. The State Department's Office of Defense Trade Controls has final responsibility for license applications for commercial defense trade exports and all issues related to defense trade compliance, enforcement, and reporting.

2. Congress approved the higher notification thresholds for NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand in legislation passed in September 2002.

Sources: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of State, and Arms Control Association

Conventional Arms Issues

Country Resources:

Fact Sheet Categories:

Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements From January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2001

January 2002

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: January 2002

During 2001, the Pentagon notified Congress of an estimated $18.884 billion in proposed, government-to-government, conventional arms transfer agreements with 22 countries.

The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Defense Department's Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions. Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of any proposed sale of "major defense equipment," as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as "major defense equipment" which total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million 1 Once notified, Congress has 30 calendar days (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand) to block a sale by passing a joint resolution of disapproval, though it has never blocked a sale once formally notified.

Possible Pentagon arms sales to South Korea totaled $6.213 billion, approximately one-third the value of all the proposed deals in 2001. Of that amount, $1.615 billion is for weapons and other sub-systems related to Seoul's previously announced possible buy of at least 40 U.S. F-15K fighter aircraft, which South Korea has currently postponed because it claims all the offers it received are too expensive. Another $4 billion would go toward a possible buy of 36 attack helicopters, for which two U.S. companies are competing. (Boeing is offering the AH-64D Apache at $2.4 billion and Bell Helicopter Textron is offering the AH-1Z Super Cobra at $1.6 billion.)

Ranking second in possible deals, Poland is considering a $4.3 billion buy of 60 F-16 fighter aircraft. Poland may make a final decision on its fighter aircraft purchase during 2002. Other countries are also considering possible combat aircraft buys from the United States. Austria is weighing its options, including U.S. F-16s, for a purchase of 30 fighters, while Chile and Oman have moved closer toward finalizing their proposed F-16 fighter buys.

Aside from these major potential deals, the proposed FMS sales are largely upgrades, armaments, or support equipment for past and pending sales of U.S. weapon systems. During 2000, the Pentagon notified Congress of possible agreements totaling at least $11.6 billion.2

The Top Five Recipients of Proposed FMS Deals
From January 1 to December 31, 2001:

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
South Korea
$6.213 billion

Munitions, sub-systems, and related equipment for possible sale of F-15K aircraft, including 105 AIM-9X Sidewinder missiles and 157 AIM-120C Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAMs)

45 AGM-84-H Standoff Land Attack Missiles-Expanded Response missile systems, 1 ATM-84-H Exercise Missile and related equipment for use on F-15K aircraft.

Cooperative Logistics Supply Support agreement for radar and missiles.

Three MK-41 Vertical Launch Systems for South Korean destroyers.

36 AH-1Z Super Cobra or AH-64D Apache attack helicopters with weapons and support equipment.

Poland
$4.3 billion
44 F-16C/D fighter aircraft, 12 F-16A fighter aircraft, and 4 F-16B fighter aircraft, plus weapons, training, and support.
Austria
$1.739 billion
30 F-16C/D fighter aircraft, 3 spare F-16C/D engines, 4 AIM-120C AMRAAMs, 9 AIM-120C AMRAAM Air Vehicle Instrumented missiles, 20 AIM-9M-8/9 Sidewinder missiles, 15 AIM-9M-8/9 Sidewinder practice/training missiles, plus additional equipment, training and support.
Oman
$1.120 billion
12 F-16C/D fighter aircraft with engine and radar, 50 AIM-120C AMRAAMs, 10 AMRAAM training missiles, 100 AIM-9M-8/9 Sidewinder missiles, 10 Sidewinder training missiles, 80 AGM-65D/G Maverick missiles, plus additional equipment.
Egypt
$1.119 billion

201 M109A2/A3 155mm self-propelled howitzers, with spare parts.

240 wheeled bulldozers with spare parts, training, and support.

26 Extended Range-Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (ER-MLRS), 485 ER-MLRS rocket pods, 22 reduced range practice rocket pods with related software, equipment training, and support.

100 M1A1 Abrams tank kits and additional munitions, training, and support.

 

 

 

Assisted by Andy Diamond


NOTES:

1.The State Department is also required to report to Congress any commercial sales it approves of "major defense equipment" that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million, and any items defined as "significant military equipment." As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval within 30 calendar days of notification (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand). There are no official compilations of commercial agreement data and it is often incomplete and less precise than the data on government-to-government transactions (Grimmett, Richard F. Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1993-2000, Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, p. 15). The annual Section 655 report, prepared by the State Department and Defense Department for Congress, details commercial licenses approved, but states have four years to act under the licenses, and there is no current reporting requirement for actual deliveries after the initial license wins approval. However, beginning in fiscal year 2001, U.S. exporters are required to report on actual commercial transfers within 15 days of shipment. The State Department's Office of Defense Trade Controls has final responsibility for license applications for commercial defense trade exports and all issues related to defense trade compliance, enforcement, and reporting.

2. A proposed German buy of HARM missiles was estimated at $50 million or $250 million depending on whether Germany acquires the B or C model. In addition, no value or quantity was declared for Australia's possible purchase of AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles, but notifications are required for sales equaling or exceeding $14 million. For the purpose of this fact sheet, the minimum values of $50 million for the proposed German missile buy and $14 million for the possible Australian acquisition were assumed in calculating the total value of proposed U.S. FMS sales during the period.

Sources: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of State, and Arms Control Association

Conventional Arms Issues

Country Resources:

Fact Sheet Categories:

Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements From January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2000

January 2001

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: January 2001

From January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2000, the Pentagon reported to Congress proposed government-to-government conventional arms transfer agreements with 25 countries worth a minimum of $11.6 billion.1

Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of any proposed sale of "major defense equipment," as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as "major defense equipment" that total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.2 Once notified, Congress has 30 calendar days (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand) to block a sale by voting a joint resolution of disapproval, though it has never exercised this authority. The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Defense Department's Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions.

The 2000 total is significantly less than the $20.78 billion in arms sales to 19 countries proposed in 1999, but that figure was bolstered by several countries seeking advanced aircraft, as well as a possible $4.2 billion deal with South Korea for advanced versions of the Patriot anti-missile system.

Saudi Arabia led all prospective buyers in 2000 with $3.18 billion in requested arms, and Taiwan ranked second with proposed buys totaling $1.87 billion. Together, the top five prospective weapons buyers—Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Israel ($1.6 billion), Egypt ($1.17 billion), and Italy ($915 million)—accounted for 75 percent of the value of the proposed arms deals. The Near East led all regions in prospective buys, totaling approximately $6.2 billion in possible deals. This total does not include the United Arab Emirates' estimated $6.4 billion contract signed on March 5, 2000 with Lockheed Martin for 80 F-16C/D fighter aircraft, which was concluded as a commercial deal between the company and the foreign government and not as a sale by the U.S. government through the Pentagon. Seven countries in the Asia-Pacific region accounted for $2.8 billion of the proposed sales, while a dozen European countries sought weapons valued at $2.6 billion.

 

The Top 3 Recipients of Proposed Arms Deals
From January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2000

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
Saudi Arabia
$3.18 billion

500 AIM-120C Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles.

Continuation of contractor maintenance and training technical services, spare and repair parts, support equipment, modification facilities, and labor to accomplish programmed depot maintenance on the F-15 aircraft.

Continuation of U.S. Air Force and contractor technical services, spare and repair parts, support equipment and simulators in support of the Royal Saudi Air Force F-15 aircraft.

Continuation of U.S. supported effort to modernize the Saudi Arabian National Guard to include, among other items, 1,827 TOW 2A missiles, advanced tactical communication systems, and 132 Light Armored Vehicles.

Taiwan
$1.87 billion

Items needed for conversion of the TPS-43F air surveillance radar to the TPS-75V configuration.

162 HAWK Intercept Aerial guided missiles.

48 AN/ALQ-184 electronic countermeasures pods.

39 sets of Pathfinder/Sharpshooter (Lantirn derivatives) pods.

146 M109A5 155mm self-propelled howitzers, 79 M2 machine guns, six M88A2 recovery vehicles, 160 AN/PVS-7B Night Vision Goggles, and advanced tactical communication systems.

200 AIM-120C Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles and 292 LAU-129 missile launchers.

71 RGM-84L Harpoon missiles, six Harpoon training missiles, and 10 Harpoon Shipboard Launcher Command Launch Control Sets.

Follow-on phase of the Improved Mobile Subscriber Equipment communication system.

Israel
$1.62 billion

Services for construction of two infantry training bases and a storage and logistics base for a reserve armored division.

41 AGM-142D air-to-ground missiles with data links.

241,000 M107 high explosive 155mm projectiles and publications.

57 AIM-120B Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles.

14 non-MDE Beech King Air B2000CT/T fixed wing aircraft.

JP-8 aviation jet fuel.

8 AH-64D Apache attack helicopters, 10 AN/APG-78 AH-64D Longbow Fire Control Radar and configuration of 70 M272 Hellfire missile launchers to M299 version.

35 UH-60L Blackhawk helicopters.

Assisted by Jonathan Weiss


This register does not necessarily reflect finalized transactions and therefore is most useful in demonstrating trends in the type of weapons systems the United States is willing to sell, to whom it will sell, and the costs involved.

 

NOTES:

1. The proposed German buy of HARM missiles could total $50 million or $250 million depending on whether Germany acquires the B or C model. In addition, no value or quantity was declared for Australia's possible purchase of AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles, but notifications are required for sales equaling or exceeding $14 million. For the purpose of this fact sheet, the minimum values of $50 million for the proposed German missile buy and $14 million for the possible Australian acquisition were assumed in calculating the total value of proposed U.S. FMS sales during the period.

2. The president is also required to report to Congress any commercial sales of "major defense equipment" that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million, and any items defined as "significant military equipment." Like FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval within 30 calendar days of notification (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand).

Sources: Department of Defense, Department of State, ACA

Conventional Arms Issues

Country Resources:

Fact Sheet Categories:

Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements Reported to Congress from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999

January 2000

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: January 2000

From January 1 to December 31, 1999, the Pentagon reported to Congress $20.78 billion in proposed government-to-government conventional arms transfer agreements with nineteen countries. Proposed sales of advanced fighters to Egypt, Greece, Israel, Norway and South Korea, as well as a possible $4.2 billion sale of 14 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 missile systems to Seoul, resulted in a substantial increase in the value of proposed sales from 1998, which totaled $12.1 billion. While the Middle East topped all regions in 1998 with sixty percent of proposed arms deals, it ranked third in 1999 behind Europe and Asia-Pacific. Seven European countries, led by Greece, sought arms worth nearly $7.8 billion. South Korea accounted for more than $5.4 billion of the Asia-Pacific region’s $7.49 billion in possible arms buys. Israel and Egypt requested more than 96 percent of the Middle East’s $5.2 billion total.

Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of any proposed sale of "major defense equipment," as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as "major defense equipment" that total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.1 Once notified, Congress has thirty calendar days (fifteen in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan and New Zealand) to block a sale by passing a joint resolution of disapproval. The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions.

The Top 5 Recipients of Arms Deals Reported to Congress in 1999:

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
South Korea
$5.46 billion

Sale of aircraft spare parts under a Cooperative Logistics Supply

64 MK44 Guided Missile Round Pack with tactical MK 116 Block I Rolling Airframe Missiles.

29 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems with fire control panels, 281 MLRS extended range rocket pods, 120 reduced range rocket pods, one MLRS fire control proficiency trainer, 111 M39 Army Tactical Missile Systems Block 1 guided missile and launching assemblies, training and test devices, trucks, and support services.

20 F-16C/D aircraft component kits, spare and repair parts.

14 Patriot Advance Capability-3 fire units consisting of: 14 AN/MPQ-53 radar sets, 14 AN/MSQ-104 engagement control stations, 76 M091 launching stations, 31 OA-9054 (V) 41G antenna mast groups, 14 electric power plants with dual 150kw generators; 616 MIM-104D missiles, 333 SINCGARS and associated equipment.

Greece
$3.46 billion

Patriot missile system support equipment.

Four AH-64A Apache attack helicopters.

358 M26A1 Extended Range Rocket pods with M77 grenades for the Multiple Launch Rocket System.70 F-16C/D Block 50+ aircraft.

Israel
$2.68 billion

50 F-16C/D aircraft, 50 AN/APG-68(V)X radars and 30 LANTIRN navigation and targeting pods.

42 AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles.

518 M984A1/M985 Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Trucks.

Remanufacture of 24 AH-64A Apache helicopters to AH-64D model helicopters, 12 AN/APG-78 AH-64D Longbow Fire Control Radars, 12 APR-48A Radar Frequency Interferometers, 56 T-700-GE-701C engines, 24 Target Acquisition Designation Sight/Pilot Night Vision Sensors, 480 AGM-114L3 HELLFIRE II laser guided missiles.

700 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) tail kits, MK-84 inert bombs, testing and spare and repair parts.

Norway
$2.6 billion
30 F-16 Block 60 or F-16 Block 50+ aircraft.
Egypt
$2.35 billion

24 F-16C/D Block 40 aircraft, 28 engines, and 24 AN/APG-68 radars.

Upgrade of five E-2C Update Group II Mission Suite retrofit kits for existing E-2C aircraft.

Six AN/TPQ-36(V)7 FIREFINDER radar sets, 16 AN/VRC-90E SINCGAR radio systems, six commercial M1097A2 HMMWV trucks.

Two UH-60L VIP Blackhawk utility helicopters and two spare engines.

A co-production program for 100 M1A1 Abrams tanks.

Two Gulfstream IV-SP aircraft including four Rolls Royce engines.

239 High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles.

Modification/upgrade of five AN/TPS-59(V)2 radar systems to the AN/TPS-59(V)3 configuration.

 


The Arms Control Association maintains a register of all U.S. FMS sales notified to Congress by the Pentagon since January 1990. The register does not necessarily reflect finalized transactions, and therefore is most useful in demonstrating trends in the types of weapon systems the United States is willing to sell, to whom it will sell, and the values involved.

NOTE:

1. Commercial sales of "major defense equipment" that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million and any items defined as "significant military equipment." As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval. [Back to text]

Sources: Department of Defense, Department of State, ACA

Conventional Arms Issues

Country Resources:

Fact Sheet Categories:

Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements Notified to Congress from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 1998

January 1999

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: January 1999

From January 1 to December 31, 1998, the Pentagon reported to Congress $12.115 billion of proposed government-to-government conventional arms transfer agreements with seventeen countries. Sixty percent ($7.32 billion) of the proposed sales are to states in the Middle East. This total does not include the announced purchase of 80 F-16C/D fighters by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on May 12 in a direct commercial sale valued at $5 billion. In 1997, the Pentagon notified Congress of $10.618 billion in proposed sales to eighteen countries.

Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of any proposed sale of : "major defense equipment," as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as "major defense equipment" that total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.1 Once notified, Congress has thirty calendar days (fifteen in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan and New Zealand) to block a sale by voting a joint resolution of disapproval, though it has never exercised this authority. The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions.

Top 10 Recipients of Arms Deals Notified to Congress from January 1 to December 31, 1998

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
Israel
$2.627 billion

64 AIM-120B Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAMs) and three test missiles.

Patriot missile system equipment including three AN/MPQ-53 radar sets, three AN/MSQ-104 engagement control stations, three M983 tractors and nine M931A2 trucks.

16 HARPOON missiles with containers and spare and repair parts.

60 F-16C/D Block 50/52 fighters or 30 F-15I fighters.
United Arab Emirates
$2 billion
In support of the direct commercial sale of 80 F-16C/D fighters: 491 AIM-120B AMRAAMs, 267 AIM-9M ½ SIDEWINDER missiles and 80 SIDEWINDER training missiles, 163 AGM-88 High Speed Anti-Radiation (HARM) missiles, 1,163 AGM-65D/G MAVERICK missiles and 20 training missiles, 52 AGM-84 HARPOON missiles, 2,252 MK-82 and 1,231 MK-84 general purpose bombs, 462 GBU-12 PAVEWAY II and 606 GBU-24 PAVEWAY III laser guided bomb kits and other assorted bombs and munitions.
Greece
$1.602 billion

160 AGM-114KBF HELLFIRE II missiles, 88 AGM-114K1 HELLFIRE II missiles, publications and logistic support.

1,322 STINGER-RMP Block 1 International missiles including 1,286 complete missile rounds without grip stocks, 36 lot acceptance missiles and 188 gripstock control group guided missile launchers.

200 AGM-65G MAVERICK missiles, 200 GBU-24 A/B bomb kits and missile launchers.

18 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (MLRS), 146 MLRS extended range rocket pods, 81 Army Tactical Missile System guided missiles, 11 M577 command post carriers, 162 M26 rockets, 94 SINCGARS radio systems, 60 AN/PVS-7B night vision goggles, 4 M984A1 and 24 M985 heavy expanded mobility tactical trucks.

6 new production E-2C Airborne Early Warning and Control mission systems as part of a purchase of either E-2C or C-130J airframe.

Lease/sale arrangement of 4 KIDD class guided missile destroyers, 62,000 20mm cartridges, 4,800 5"/54 projectiles, 64 anti-submarine rockets, 320 MK 36 Rapid Bloom Offboard Chaff, 32 HARPOON missiles, 48 MK 46 MOD 5 torpedoes and other related ammunition.

Taiwan
$1.296 billion

Three KNOX class frigates, weapons and ammunition to include one MK 15 PHALANX Close-In Weapons System (CIWS), one AN/SWG-1A HARPOON launcher, two sets of MK 36 MOD 5 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures decoy launching system, 1,581 rounds of 5 inch ammunition and 30,000 rounds of 20mm tungsten cartridges for CIWS.

PATHFINDER/SHARPSHOOTER navigation and targeting pods for F-16A/B fighters.

61 Dual Mount STINGER launchers and 728 STINGER RMP missile rounds and 132 AN/VRC-91 export version radios.

58 HARPOON missiles and eight training missiles.

131 MK-46 MOD 5S torpedoes and spare parts.

Nine CH-47D Chinook helicopters with three spare engines.

Egypt
$1.138 billion

Two FFG-7 PERRY class frigates, two currently leased FF 1052 KNOX class frigates.

42 HARPOON missiles and containers and upgrade modification kits for 20 SM-1 STANDARD missiles.

1,058 STINGER RMP Type III missiles less reprogrammable modules, 48 lot acceptance missiles, 50 completer AVENGER Systems, launch pods integrated on High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles, 50 AVENGER turrets, M3P machine guns and 50 STANDARD Vehicle Mounted Launchers.

F-16 Depot Level Maintenance Program.

Upgrade of six CH-47C Chinook helicopters to newer configuration and upgrade of 40 ALQ-131 Block I to Block II pods.

Saudi Arabia
$946 million

Upgrade of 1,500 AIM-9L missiles to 9M configuration and five sets of PATHFINDER/SHARPSHOOTER navigation and targeting pods.

Services for the continuation of the U.S. supported modernization of the Saudi Arabian National Guard.

Singapore $758 million Services related to pilot proficiency training and logistics support to include aircraft modifications and support equipment.

8 AH-64D Apache helicopters, 216 HELLFIRE II laser guided missiles, 9,120 Hydra-70 rockets and other support equipment.

Kuwait
$609 million

2 fully equipped Paladin artillery battalions to include 48 M109A6 self-propelled howitzers, 152 M2 machine guns, 18 M88A2 recovery vehicles 24 M113A3 battalion reconnaissance vehicles, 64 M9992A2 field artillery ammunition support vehicles and 261 SINCGARS radio systems.

1,057 SINCGARS radio systems.

South Korea
$273 million

12 MK 14 Weapon Direction Systems and 12 OT-134 Continuous Wave Illumination Transmitters.

112 MLRS extended range rocket pods with spare and repair parts.

500 TOW 2A missiles and 8 lot acceptance missiles.

Turkey
$248 million

30 HARPOON missiles and spare and repair parts

3 FFG-7 PERRY class frigates and 8 currently leased FF 1052 KNOX class frigates and 20,000 rounds of 20mm cartridges.


The Arms Control Association maintains a register of all U.S. FMS sales notified to Congress by the Pentagon since January 1990. The register does not necessarily reflect finalized transactions, and therefore is most useful in demonstrating trends in the type of weapon systems the United States is willing to sell, to whom it will sell, and the values involved.

NOTE

1. The President is also required to report to Congress any commercial sales of "major defense equipment" that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million and any items defined as "significant military equipment." As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval within thirty calendar days of notification (fifteen in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan and New Zealand). There are no official compilations of commercial agreement data and it is often incomplete and less precise than the data on government-to-government transactions (Grimmett, Richard F. Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1989-1996, Washington DC: The Library of Congress, p. 13). The annual "Section 655" report, prepared by the State Department and Defense Department for Congress, details commercial licenses approved, but states have four years to act under the licenses and their is no reporting requirement for actual deliveries after the initial license wins approval. During fiscal year 1997, the State Department approved commercial licenses that could result in over $24.7 billion in possible sales to more than 150 countries and territories. The State Department's Office of Defense Trade Controls has final responsibility for license applications for commercial defense trade exports and all issues related to defense trade compliance, enforcement and reporting. [Back to text]

Sources: Department of Defense, Department of State, ACA

Conventional Arms Issues

Country Resources:

Fact Sheet Categories:

Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements From January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997

January 1998

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: January 1998

The Pentagon notified Congress in 1997 of an estimated $10.617 billion in proposed, government-to-government, conventional arms transfer agreements with 18 countries, including Taiwan.

The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Defense Department's Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions. Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of any proposed sale of "major defense equipment," as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as "major defense equipment" which total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.1 Once notified, Congress has 30 calendar days (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand) to block a sale by passing a joint resolution of disapproval, though it has never blocked a sale once formally notified.

Three countries accounted for just over 60 percent of the total value of the proposed deals. Asking for the purchase of four Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACs) aircraft worth $3 billion, South Korea led all possible buyers with $3.8 billion in total weapons requests. Saudi Arabia ranked second with $1.4 billion in possible arms deals and Taiwan trailed with $1.2 billion in potential weapons buys.

Other notable arms deals offered by the Pentagon include 16 AH-64D Apache attack helicopters to Kuwait, 20 F-16A/B fighter aircraft to Bahrain, 15 UH-60L Blackhawk helicopters to Israel, 21 AH-1W Super Cobra combat helicopters to Taiwan, and 107 excess M-60A3 tanks to Thailand.

If all the proposed deals are finalized the top regional destination would be Asia. The five Asian countries-Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, and Thailand-requested nearly $6 billion in weapons. In comparison, Near Eastern arms buyers sought about $3.5 billion in arms and European countries tallied $1.1 billion in possible purchases.

The Top Five Recipients of Proposed FMS Deals From January 1 to December 31, 1997:

Country
Total Value
Weapons/Services
South Korea
$3.801 billion

Cooperative Logistics Supply Support Arrangement to provide spare
parts for military aircraft.

Three MK-41 Vertical Launch Systems.

One MK-41 Vertical Launch System.

159 AIM-120B Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles.

200 Stinger RMP anti-aircraft missiles and associated equipment.

Four E-767 Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACs) aircraft.

1,065 Stinger RMP anti-aircraft missiles.

Saudi Arabia
$1.428 billion

Communications equipment, including 465 AN/VRC-90, 355 AN/VRC-92, and 404 AN/VRC-119 radios.

Support for continued modernization of Saudi Arabian National Guard,
including 130 90mm turret weapon systems for integration into light
armored vehicles.

Contractor support services in support of five E-3 Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACs) aircraft, seven KE-3 aerial refueling tankers, and one KE-3 Tactical Air Surveillance aircraft.

Taiwan
$1.246 billion

F-16 pilot training.

Cooperative Logistics Supply Support Arrangement to provide spare
parts for military aircraft.

13 OH-58D Kiowa Warrior armed scout helicopters with 13 engines, 13 Hellfire missile launchers, Hydra-70 rockets, and spare and repair parts.

21 AH-1W Super Cobra attack helicopters with spare and repair parts.

1,786 TOW-2A anti-armor guided missiles, 114 TOW launchers, and
100 M1045A2 High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle trucks.

54 RGM-84L Harpoon anti-ship missiles with containers and spare and repair parts.

Kuwait
$800 million
16 AH-64D Apache attack helicopters, 384 Hellfire missiles, and 10,917 Hydra-70 rockets.
Egypt
$529 million

Co-production of 50 M88A2 recovery vehicle kits, 53 M2 machine guns, and 100 AN/PVS-7B night vision goggles.

Four CH-47D Chinook helicopters with engines and spare and repair parts.

32 AGM-84G Harpoon anti-ship missiles.

84 MK-46 torpedoes with containers.

Medical equipment, medical furnishings, training and other related elements of logistics to support a 650 bed International Medical Center in Egypt.

 


NOTE:
1. The State Department is also required to report to Congress any commercial sales it approves of "major defense equipment" that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million, and any items defined as "significant military equipment." As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval within 30 calendar days of notification (15 in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand). Potential weapons buyers have four years to act under authorized commercial licenses. The State Department's Office of Defense Trade Controls has final responsibility for license applications for commercial defense trade exports and all issues related to defense trade compliance, enforcement, and reporting.

Sources: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of State, and Arms Control Association

Conventional Arms Issues

Country Resources:

Fact Sheet Categories:

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